Online Travel Business Course Time Frame

How long?

As an online, open and distance learning course, study time is dependent on the time of the learner. However, all assignments must be completed at the required time for qualification.

The course is designed for self-study along with some guided instruction.

Study skills

As an adult learner your approach to learning will be different to that from your school days: you will choose what you want to study, you will have professional and/or personal motivation for doing so and you will most likely be fitting your study activities around other professional or domestic responsibilities.

Essentially you will be taking control of your learning environment. As a consequence, you will need to consider performance issues related to time management, goal setting, stress management, etc. Perhaps you will also need to reacquaint yourself in areas such as essay planning, coping with exams and using the web as a learning resource.

Your most significant considerations will be time and space i.e. the time you dedicate to your learning and the environment in which you engage in that learning.

We recommend that you take time now—before starting your selfstudy—to familiarize yourself with these issues. There are a number of excellent resources on the web. A few suggested links are:


Digital Travel Agent Training aims to build and improve the competence of superior and dignified tourism business human resources.

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The Global Travel Business Education Centre [GTBEC] have designed < >.a new training program specifically for individuals < > who are serious about Travel Professionals..


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Payment Methods in GTBEC

You can use the various local bank transfer methods listed here.

Kindly Pay To: Drs. Noersal Samad, MA (UI)

(a) For 3 (three) months IDR 300,000 or in USD 27.00

(b) For 6 (six) months IDR 500,000 or in USD 35.00

(c)  For 1 (one) year IDR 800,000 or in USD 57,00

Bank Mandiri #157-00-0185201-2

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You are cordially invited to also click and visit  the following:

(01) – 

=> Tourism Business Tutorial

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=> Digital Travel Agent Training

You need a paid subscription, however, to become a Premium Member enabling you to view each detailed  (full text) lesson. 

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Succeed by learning how to use your GTBEC program.

  • Understand how to use your Student Portal.
  • Access the GTBEC Community and use it to find answers.
  • Connect with GTBEC on various social media sites.

You need a paid subscription, however, to become a Premium Member enabling you to view each detailed  (full text) lesson. 

As a Premium Member, you can login now, otherwise, please register first [premium] The “How to study” website is dedicated to study skills resources. You will find links to study preparation (a list of nine essentials for a good study place), taking notes, strategies for reading text books, using reference sources, test anxiety.

This is the website of the Virginia Tech, Division of Student Affairs. You will find links to time scheduling (including a “where does time go?” link), a study skill checklist, basic concentration techniques, control of the study environment, note taking, how to read essays for analysis, memory skills (“remembering”). This website looks at preparing for online study. Another “How to study” website with useful links to time management, efficient reading, questioning/listening/observing skills, getting the most out of doing (“hands-on” learning), memory building, tips for staying motivated, developing a learning plan.

The above links are our suggestions to start you on your way. However, be aware that Internet addresses change frequently, so if a website cannot be accessed, use a search engine. At the time of writing these web links were active. If you want to look for more go to and type “self-study basics”, “self-study tips”, “self-study skills” or similar.

What is the course instructor’s name? Where can s/he be located (office location and hours, telephone/fax number, e-mail address)?

Is there a teaching assistant for routine enquiries? Where can s/he be located (office location and hours, telephone/fax number, e-mail address)?

Is there a librarian/research assistant available? Where can s/he be located (office location and hours, telephone/fax number, e-mail address)?

Is there a learners’ resource centre? Where is it located? What are the opening hours, telephone number, who is the resource centre manager, what is the manager’s e-mail address)?

Who do learners contact for technical issues (computer problems, website access, etc.)

Unit 1 – Introduction to Tourism 

Unit Overview

Over the years, tourism has become meaningful to all economies. The need for discovery has caused movement of people of differing languages and cultures. Generation of income has led many governments to seek another way to garner revenues and development employment opportunities.

As a tour guide in this era, “a dying breed”, you will be interacting with the people on whom your existence depends. An answer to what is tourism and the history of this revenue earner will be the focus of this Unit.

Let us explore the subject of tourism toget

Outcomes for Unit 1

By the completion of this unit, you will be able to:

  • Provide knowledge of why tourism is part of the services industry
  • Outline the components and services that comprise the tourism industry
  • Recognize the linkages of tourism in the economy
  • Establish career opportunities available in the tourism industry
  • Differentiate between service and servitude

Unit 1:1  The Tourism Industry 

Unit Overview

There are many places of interest in this world. With the millions of people around, the desire to learn and see more of the world, people engage in tourism. The tourism industry is the bedrock of most modern economies for it includes countless components that influence the survival and livelihood of the residents. Despite the obvious economic advantages of the industry, the esthetic benefits to the buyer and service provider cannot be underestimated.

By looking at the linkages that exist within the tapestry of this industry, the benefits and development of it is vital.

Objectives for Unit 1:1

By the completion of this unit, you will be able to:

  • Define “tourism”, “tourists” and the tourism industry
  • List the reasons for the importance of tourism
  • Explain the different forms of tourism
  • list two (2) means of transportation that is commonly known
  • Discuss the history of tourism
  • Discuss one reason why people travel
  • Explain three (3) factors that influence travel decisions
  • Explain the importance of the tour guide being knowledgeable about the push/pull factors of tourism
  • Identify the various organizations that are involved in the tourism globally
  • Analyze the benefits and costs of tourism

Definitions:  Tourism

Tourism is travel for recreational, leisure or business purposes.  In 1976, the Tourism Society of England’s definition was: “Tourism is the temporary, short-term movement of people to destination outside the places where they normally live and work and their activities during the stay at each destination. It includes movements for all purposes.”

Another definition for tourism by the World trade Organization is that “tourism comprises the activities of persons traveling to and staying in places outside their usual environment for not more than one consecutive year for leisure, business, and other purposes.” 4/1034-1.pdf


The World Tourism Organization (1995) defines tourists as people who “travel to and stay in places outside their usual environment for more than twenty-four (24) hours and not more than one consecutive year for leisure, business and other purposes not related to the exercise of an activity remunerated from within the place visited”.

Tourism industry

This industry is comprised of the group of businesses that provide the activities in which tourists are engaged in while away from home. This will be discussed in more detail under “Sectors of Tourism”. One definition by Goeldner and Ritchie (2006) Tourism – Principles, Practices, Philosophies, is that “tourism is a composite of activities, services, and industries that deliver a travel experience.”

Forms of Tourism 

There are many forms of tourism in which persons traveling can engage. These forms are as follows:

  1. Domestic tourism – residents of the country travel within this country
  2. Inbound tourism – non-residents travel in the given country
  3. Outbound tourism – residents travel to another country.

Further to these forms the United Nations also derived different categories of tourism which combine the three (3) basic forms of tourism. These categories are as follows:

  1. Internal tourism which will comprise domestic and inbound tourism
  2. National tourism comprises domestic and outbound tourism
  3. International tourism – consisting of inbound and outbound tourism.

In Korea, the Tourism Organization there coined the term “Intrabound Tourism which differs from domestic tourism in that the former encompasses policymaking and implementation of national tourism policies.

So as you would see, there is correlation in the forms of tourism however you look at it. Hence, the forms of tourism can be summarized as internal and international.

History of tourism

It may be a stretch to state that the first unofficial form of tourism occurred with the nomads, as they moved form place to place in search of a better way of life. True based on the definition of tourism this would not be accurate, yet it proves the point of tourism.

For each nation, country or people, the history of tourism is different. Generally, early times of tourism mentions the pilgrimages to Rome and Mecca and the Grand Tour in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries.

Each nation has a story, so complete Activity 1:1:1.

Activity 1:1:1

Research the history of tourism in your country. What were the catalysts factors? Who were the pioneers? Why is tourism so important?

Niches of Tourism

With the general term “tourism”, there are many different categories or niches of this industry. There is ecotourism, sustainable tourism, sports tourism and cruise tourism, space tourism and LGBT tourism. The list of adjectival tourism continues. Complete Activity 1:1:2

Activity 1:1:2

Research the different niches of tourism. Identify the type of tourism in your country.  To help you along, go to

Types of travellers

Goeldner et al (2003) wrote that “the underlying conceptualization of tourism is that of a traveller.  A traveller is someone who makes a trip between two or more countries or two or more localities within his/her country of usual residence.” However, he further noted that travellers are categorized as visitors.  For our purposes we will subdivide these visitors into two general groups.

Tourist is the generic term used for persons, but of course there are exceptions.

Excursionist – this is the same-day visitor. This visitor spends less than twenty-four hours (24 hours) in the country visiting. For example: cruise ship passengers. However, crews of airplanes or cruise ships are not counted in this classification.

Tourist – these visitors stay in the country for at least one night but less than one full year. For example: when someone from Barbados takes a two-week vacation to the Bahamas.

Based on the niches of tourism, there are several types of tourists that may emerge. The choice of factors such as amenities, and attractions determine the label, such as:

 Naturalist – where travel is not first class, no accommodation and stay away from catered tourist attractions.

 Organized Mass Tourist – these are usually vacationers on a packaged tour; there may be chartered flights and the requiem visit to major attractions.

 Explorer – this type of tourist mixes with the host community but remain in the “tourist bubble”. They plan their own trip and avoid organized tourist attractions.

According to Cohen (1972) the explorer role is where the trip is organized independently (not part of the mass tourist group) and is looking to get off the beaten track. However comfortable accommodation and reliable transport are sought and, while the environment bubble is abandoned on occasion, it is there to step into if things get tough”.

Cooper, Fletcher et al (1998) in Tourism Principles and Practice – 2nd Edition. Pearson Education Limited . England

 Drifter – this type of tourist immerses themselves in the culture of the host community – avoiding tourist attractions and may live with the members of the community.

The drifter role as described by Cohen (1972) notes that “all connections with the tourism industry are spurned and the trip attempts to get as far from home and familiarity as possible. With no fixed itinerary, the drifter lives with local people, paying his/her way and immersing him/herself in their culture.

Cooper, Fletcher et al (1998) in Tourism Principles and Practice – 2nd Edition. Pearson Education Limited . England

Purpose of travel

Have you ever wanted to get away from the normal everyday activities of life? If yes, what were your reasons?

People travel for a myriad of reasons; some of these are:

 Health – going to see a doctor for a medical emergency; going to a tropical country to enjoy the sun and sea for therapeutic treatments or other medical emergencies.

 Leisure – vacations or holidays or just for fun and relaxation

 Visiting friends and relatives (VFR) – part of leisure, this category may be to attend a reunion at the Alma Mater University or college. It may also be a spend time with family after a long time.

 Religious reasons- such as for pilgrimages and religious festivals

 Business – to transact some form of business deal or present a proposal to overseas investors

 Meetings, incentives, conventions and events – this category may be considered under business. It looks at the different reasons that someone on business may choose to travel. However, with events, there may be a segment that is there not on business but pleasure or leisure. The event may be for a music festival, for example, St Lucia Jazz Festival or a cultural event such as Crop Over Festival in Barbados or the Rio de Janeiro Carnival in Brazil.

 To see attractions – a visit to see the beauty of the Taj Mahal in India or the historical exhibits packed within the Smithsonian 19 museums may be pull factors for persons to visit a destination (See Figures 1 and 2 below). To engage in outdoor recreation and adventures such as skiing, bird watching. Even planning and attending various events, seasonal or not such as the Summer or Winter Olympic Games is a form of tourism.

Attractions may be defined as:

 The facilities, activities, locations or sights that a tour visits, such as a monument, museum or natural wonder. (Mancini 2003)

 Facilities developed especially to provide residents and visitors with entertainment, activity learning, socializing, and other forms of stimulation that make a region or destination a desirable and enjoyable place. (Goeldner et al 2006)

For the tourist, all this may be considered to be an opportunity to broaden their frame of reference – education and wanderlust.

 Educational reasons – a linguistic class engaging in language exchanges with students from other parts of the world or visiting a place of interest in fulfillment of an internship.

 Transit reasons – this is a special count of visitors that do not stay-over in the country but are passing through onwards to the final destination. For example: a passenger form Barbados may stopover in transit to Los Angeles in Miami. In some countries the statistics for this reason is not counted in that for tourists.

All these reasons may be categorized into two main categories – business or leisure. From these two broad categories you may have a combination of business and leisure in one trip. These categories are then coalesced into the particular reason for travel.

Factors that influence travel

We have already seen the reasons why persons may travel; as their purposes vary so too do the factors that influence the travel decision.

Factors that influence travel decisions 

 Climate

 Distance between countries

 Attractions – natural and man-made

 Communications – transportation infrastructure – can it be traveled by one means of transport or node of transport

 Cost

 Cultural links / Language

 Political factors

Why do tour guides need to know the motivations for travel?

Tour-guides need to be familiar with the places where people come, as this affects the ways people behave. Tour-guides need to be aware of cultural differences and the expectations and level of service may vary.

 Modes of transportation

At one time or other, people desire a change in environment and culture. The desire to escape from the challenges and stresses of life and achieve certain personal goals stimulates the travel desire.

So how do we move from one place to another? It is usually by some form of transportation. It can be by road, by air or by water.

 Cars

 Buses

 Trains

 Aircrafts/ aeroplanes – for long distances across many geographical planes

 Cruise-ships

There is a network of routes along which the vehicles travel – roads, tracks, air and sea lanes. At times these nodes become interchanged.

Transportation infrastructure from the generating country to the destination is affected by the nodes or means of transportation.

Tourism Organizations 

In the history of the world, the need for order has been realized as a sure fact.  Even within tourism, the need is even greater for in looking at employment issues, revenue generation or carrying capacity of the island, organization is crucial.

There are many international organizations involved in tourism. However, before we look at the international organizations there are national tourist boards/bureaus and regional agencies that form the structure of tourism.

Some of the regional and international bodies that have oversight of tourism or development of statutes and other legislation are as follows:

  1. Caribbean Tourism Organization – this regional organization was established in 1989 after a merger with the Caribbean Tourism Association.
  2. UNWTO or World Tourism Organization – that since September 27, 1980 celebrated “World Tourism Day”. This organization was established in 1974.
  3. World Trade Organization – established in1995. It operates a system of rules for trade where nations can settle disputes and negotiate agreements related to trade barriers. Its history goes back to 1944.
  4. The World Travel and Tourism Council – this is a forum for business leaders of travel and tourism. It was established in 1990.

Complete Activity 1:1:3

These organizations help policy makers develop industry standards that are vital to sustainability of the tourism industry.

Activity 1:1:3

  1. Choose any two (2) of the organization that help to structure tourism.
  2. Write brief notes on their history and development.

Importance of tourism

Many present and past world leaders know the importance of tourism. The below mentioned are quotes prepared by the World Travel and Tourism Council as noted by Goeldner and Ritchie, J.R. Brent (2003) Tourism Principles, Practices, Philosophies, 9th Edition:

 “Tourism is a big business in Canada with a unique ability to create jobs nationwide. It is a people-intensive industry with a demonstrated ability to create jobs at a faster rate, more economically, than the economy as a whole.” Prime Minister Jean Chrétien – Canada.

 “The travel and tourism industry in this country has performed excellently, gaining world market share, increasing its contribution to GDP and creating one in five of all new jobs.” Prime Minister John Major – United Kingdom

 “Tourism has exerted enormous impact on the economic development of the Caribbean region as a whole. It accounts for 25 percent of the total value of exports or goods and services, making the Caribbean the world’s most tourist-dependent region.” Prime Minister Percival J. Patterson – Jamaica

 “… Tourism can contribute substantially to developing the people of our country as it is a highly labour intensive industry accommodating a wide spectrum of skilled and semiskilled labour.” President Nelson Mandela- South Africa

When we look at the quotes we see the following we see the importance of tourism as:

  1. economic advantages to the Gross Domestic Product (GDP) and national income; revenue earner; investment
  2. employment and job creation
  3. social and cultural stability
  4. conservation of the environment and architecture

Benefits and Costs of tourism

As in life, there are many benefits or positives to tourism but there are also costs or negatives. This is so for the countries and communities as a whole.

Benefits of tourism Costs of tourism

  • Employment opportunities in both skilled and unskilled areas. Vulnerable to economic and political changes
  • Increased income for full-time or part-time workers
  • Contributes to disease, economic fluctuation and other problems
  • Diversification of the economy Unbalanced economic development
  • Create increased Gross National Product (GNP) and Gross Domestic Product (GDP) Inflation increases
  • Reinforces the preservation of heritage and culture
  • Commercialization of culture and arts
  • Promotes international understanding and peace
  • Conflict creation in host societies
  • Development of local products and resources
  • Creates social problems
  • Justifies environmental protection Degrades the cultural and physical environment

Complete Activity 1:1:4.

Activity 1:1:4

Add to the list of benefits and costs of tourism mentioned above.

Evaluate your country’s tourism, and identify the benefits and costs to your country.

1 Sections of this Note rely upon the following documentation:

Economist, “Dream Factories:  A Survey of Travel and Tourism”, 10 January, 1998;

Financial Times, “Survey:  World Tourism”, 18 June, 1998; UNCTAD, International Trade in TourismRelated Services:  Issues and  Options for Developing Countries, (TD/B/COM.1/EM.6/2, 8 April, 1998) and other papers submitted for the Expert Meeting on Strengthening the Capacities of the Tourism Sector in Developing Countries, Geneva, 8-10 June, 1998;

World Tourism Organization, International Tourism:  A Global Perspective, 1997, Madrid;  World Tourism Organization, Seminar on GATS Implications for Tourism, 1995;  and World Tourism Organization, Tourism Economic Report, 1998.

Assessment for Unit 1:1

Read the following excerpt: then review the issues to tourism discussed in this unit.  According to;

“Tourism, broadly defined, is regarded as the world’s largest industry and one of the fastest-growing, accounting for over onethird of the value of total world-wide services trade.1  Highly labour-intensive, it is a major source of employment generation, especially in remote and rural areas.

Tourism demand, both domestic and international, is directly related to income levels, and therefore has prospered as global wealth has increased.  The arrival of low-cost air travel has radically transformed tourism as a whole, but the industry has expressed serious concern over the current system of bilateral aviation agreements, arguing that protectionism severely limits tourism potential.”

Besides economics, what would you say to your government is the importance of tourism for the upcoming decade?

Summary for Unit 1:1

In this unit you defined the terms related to this industry; these were tourism, tourists, excursionist.

Some key points that you need to remember from this unit are:

People travel for varied reasons including health, business and leisure such as seeing attractions.

The importance of tourism is for many countries economic reasons.

There are different forms of tourism such as ecotourism, mass tourism and cultural tourism. The type of traveler is classified based on the accommodation or amenities they choose.

There was an overview of the history of tourism and of the various organizations that are involved in the  tourism globally

 The benefits and costs of tourism to an economy cannot be underestimated.

 Everyone in the community has a part to play in tourism for its success.

Terminology for Unit 1:1

In this unit the new terminology used included:

drifter                 excursionist            explorer           mass tourism       naturalist            tourist

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